A joint Dutch and Chinese research team has developed a double-sided heterojunction photovoltaic cell. Using a thin transparent conductive oxide (TCO), the cell uses 67 percent less indium and achieves a conversion efficiency of more than 22 percent.
Image credit: TU Delft
The TCO used in the battery is based on indium oxide (III) oxide (In2O3), which is considered by many experts to be the key element of the technology. Researchers tested three types of indium oxide doped with tin (ITO), fluorine (IFO) and tungsten (IWO). The three oxides exhibit different photoelectric properties with transition metal cationic doping, anionic doping and transition metal cationic doping respectively.